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Our readers may perchance wonder why such stories the above should have become connected with the reverend gentleman, and explanation not hard found.

Colville was a well-known divine, possessed great wealth inherited lawfully, may presume and enjoyed considerable influence the country-side. For the next instance witchcraft and the supernatural connection with Ireland are compelled beyond the confines our country.

Though this the connection with the Green Isle slight, yet interest affording example that blending fairy lore with sorcery which not uncommon feature Scottish witchcraft-trials.

The spot which was struck remained impervious pain although a pin was thrust into. The same man, during this condition was , could tell things, and had the knowledge things a strange way, which had not before; and did, indeed, signs make things known others which they knew not.

Afterwards length, prayer being made for him others, This story was related a godly minister,. Robert Blair,. John Baird, who knew the truth The Rev.

Robert Blair, M. A was a celebrated man, for other reason than account his disputes with. Echlin, Bishop Down, for his description Oliver Cromwell a greeting i.

Down, with the consent patron and people; remained there until , when was suspended. Echlin, and was deposed and excommunicated November, I looking upon him saw his eyes like the eyes a cat the night, did presently conceive that had a mischief his heart, yet I resolved not refuse what desired, but I keeped a watchful eye upon him, and stayed some distance; and being near the door the church I went , and invited him follow.

His trembling continuing and growing without any speech, I approached him, and invited him a seat, wherein could hardly sit. The great trembling was like throw him out the seat.

I laid arm about him, and asked him what ailed him? But for a time could speak none. But some days thereafter appeared him his own house, naming him his name, and said him, are mine, for I arled you with a sixpence, which yet have.

Then said , I asked his name, and answered, they call me Nickel Downus I suppose that repeated evil, that should have said Nihil Damus Being thus molested with these and many other apparitions the Devil, left Scotland; but being come Ireland did often likewise appear him, and now late still commands kill and slay; and oftentimes, says , whinger hath been drawn and kept under cloak obey his commands, but still something holds hand that I cannot strike.

But then I asked him[ 91] whom was bidden kill? This attack delirium tremens though. Blair would not have explained had a most salutary effect; the constable was such abject state terror lest the Devil should carry him off that begged.

Blair sit with him all Hallow-night, which did, spending the time very profitably prayer and exhortation, which encouraged the man defy Satan and all his works.

The upshot the matter was, that became very charitable the poor, and seems have entirely renounced his intemperate habits25] Rejecting the supernatural element the above being merely the fruits a diseased mind, there reason doubt the truth the story.

Blair, warmly congratulated him the successful exorcism had practised26] the period treated this chapter, viz. The rebellion , and the Cromwellian confiscations, that troubled period when the[ 94] country was torn dissention, and ravaged fire, sword, and pestilence, was aptly ushered a series supernatural events which occurred the county Limerick.

Priests have adventured there, but have been cruelly beaten for their paynes, and carryed away they knew not how, some two miles and some four miles.

Moreover were seen the like manner, after they appear the view the neighbours, infinite number armed men foote well horseback One thing more [i.

Mary Burke with Mary come away 95] telling her she must wyfe the inchanted Earl Desmond Uppon a Mannour Lord Bishoppe Lymerick, Loughill, hath been seen upon the hill most the inhabitants aboundance armed men marching, and these seene many tymes—and when they come them they not appeare.

These things are very strange, the cleargie and gentrie say true27] During the rebellion appalling massacre Protestants took place Portadown, when about a hundred persons, men, women, and children, were forced over the bridge into the river, and drowned; the few that could swim, and managed reach the shore, were either knocked the head the insurgents when they landed, else were shot.

The supposed spectre was probably a poor, bereaved woman, demented grief and terror, who stole out her hiding- place night bewail the murder her friends, while the weird cries arose from the half- starved dogs the country-side, together with the wolves which abounded Ireland that period, quarrelling and fighting over the corpses.

Granting the above, and bearing mind the credulity[ 97] of all classes Society, not difficult see how the tales originated; but say that, because such obviously impossible statements occur certain depositions, the latter are therefore worthless a whole, wilfully misunderstand the popular mind the seventeenth century.

George Creighton, minister Virginia,. This many hundreds were eye-witnesses. Divers the like have I confidently been assured , who have been provided diabolical charms28] Similar tales persons bearing charmed lives could doubt culled from the records every war that has been fought this planet ours since History began.

The ease with which the accidental unusual was transformed into the miraculous this period shown the following.

Tate and his wife and children were flying Dublin from the insurgents. Tate mentioned above was evidently the Rev. Faithful Tate, D. Yea, severalls them dyed that night meere cold.

Our sojors, and some our officers too who suppose that thing which more than ordinarie can the product nature attributed this hurrikan to the divilish skill some Irish witches30] Apparently the English were not wise their generation the inhabitants Constance Switzerland were the occasion[ ] a similar ebullition the elements.

The latter went out, found a witch, persuaded her confess herself the guilty author the storm, and then burnt her— which time, doubt, the wind had subsided!

Much the same strain might added, but, lest should weary our readers, shall content ourselves with giving two more marvellous relations from this particular period full the marvellous.

The first these was some form the northern lights, and also recorded the diary certain Puritan officers. That theIrish took the water first move towards the English they should put a total Rout, which came pass.

Antrim, where was born, which was reduced such extremity that was forced come[ ] over England seek some means livelihood for himself craving the charity well-disposed people, but contrary his expectation has been often troubled there with dreams and The saintly James Usher, Archbishop Armagh, was a Prelate who, had happened live earlier period would certainly have been numbered amongst those whose wide and profound learning won for themselves the title magician— was, was popularly credited with prophetical powers.

According , foretold the rebellion a sermon Ezekiel. The Rev. William Turner hisCompleat History Remarkable Providences London, gives a premonition approaching death that the Archbishop received.

A lady who was dead appeared him his sleep, and invited him sup with her the next night. John Browne Durley Ireland was made his neighbour, John Mallett Enmore, trustee[ ] for his children minority.

Some his people and friends were sitting him, when their horror they suddenly saw the locked chest begin open, lock lock, without the aid any visible hand, until length the lid stood upright.

The chest slowly locked itself exactly the same manner had opened, and shortly after this. Browne died. A [Pg 81] servant-girl in the employment of Major-General Montgomerie at Irvine in Scotland was accused of having stolen some silverwork.

She then cast three of the feathers at him, and bade him return to the place from whence he came. This process she repeated three times, until she had gained all the information she desired; she then went upstairs and told her mistress, with the result that the goods were ultimately recovered.

But escaping Scylla she fell [Pg 82] into Charybdis; her uncanny practices came to the ears of the authorities, and she was apprehended. When in prison she confessed that she had learnt this particular branch of the Black Art in the house of Dr.

Colville in Ireland, who habitually practised it. That instructor of youth in such un-christian practices, the Rev. Alexander Colville, D.

He was possessed of considerable wealth, with which he purchased the Galgorm estate, on which he resided; this subsequently passed into the Mountcashel family through the marriage of his great granddaughter with Stephen Moore, first Baron Kilworth and Viscount Mountcashel.

Where Dr. Colville got the money to purchase so large an estate no one could imagine, and Classon Porter in his useful pamphlet relates for us the manner in which popular rumour solved the problem.

It was said that he had sold himself to the Devil, and that he had purchased the estate with the money his body [Pg 83] and soul had realised.

Scandal even went further still, and gave the exact terms which Dr. Colville had made with the Evil One. These were, that the Devil was at once to give the Doctor his hat full of gold, and that the latter was in return, at a distant but specified day, to deliver himself body and soul to the Devil.

The appointed place of meeting was a lime-kiln; the Devil may have thought that this was a delicate compliment to him on account of the peculiarly homelike atmosphere of the spot, but the Doctor had different ideas.

The Devil produced the gold, whereupon Dr. So far, so good. But there are two sides to every question. Years rolled by, bringing ever nearer and nearer the time at which the account had to be settled, and at length the fatal day dawned.

The Devil arrived [Pg 84] to claim his victim, and found him sitting in his house reading his Bible by the light of a candle, whereupon he directed him to come along with him.

The Doctor begged that he might not be taken away until the candle, by which he was reading, was burned out. To this the Devil assented, whereupon Dr.

Colville promptly extinguished the candle, and putting it between the leaves of the Bible locked it up in the chest where he kept his gold. It is even said that he gave orders that the candle should be put into his coffin and buried with him.

So, we may presume, Dr. Colville evaded the payment of his debt. Our readers may perchance wonder why such stories as the above should have become connected with the reverend gentleman, and an explanation is not hard to be found.

Colville was a well-known divine, possessed of great wealth inherited lawfully, we may presume , and enjoyed considerable influence in the country-side.

At this time [Pg 85] Ulster was overrun by triumphant Presbyterianism, which the Doctor, as a firm upholder of Episcopacy, opposed with all his might, and thereupon was spoken of with great acerbity by his opponents.

It is not too uncharitable, therefore, to assume that these stories originated with some member of that body, who may well have believed that such had actually happened.

For the next instance of witchcraft and the supernatural in connection with Ireland we are compelled to go beyond the confines of our country.

Though in this the connection with the Green Isle is slight, yet it is of interest as affording an example of that blending of fairy lore with sorcery which is not an uncommon feature of Scottish witchcraft-trials.

The spot on which he was struck remained impervious to pain although a pin was thrust into it. A tale slightly resembling portion of the above comes from the north of Ireland a few years later.

The same man, during this condition he was in, could tell things, and had the knowledge of things in a strange way, which he had not before; and did, indeed, by signs make things known to others which they knew not.

Afterwards he at length, prayer being made for him by others, came to the use of his tongue and ears; but when that knowledge of things he had in his deaf and dumb condition ceased, and when he was asked how he had the knowledge of these things he made signs of, he answered he had that [Pg 88] knowledge when dumb, but how and after what manner he knew not, only he had the impression thereof in his spirit.

This story was related by a godly minister, Mr. Robert Blair, to Mr. John Baird, who knew the truth of it. The Rev. Robert Blair, M.

Echlin, Bishop of Down, or for his description of Oliver Cromwell as a greeting i. On the invitation of Lord Claneboy he arrived in Ireland in , and in the same year was settled as Presbyterian parish minister at Bangor in Co.

Down, with the consent of patron and people; he remained there until , when he was suspended by Dr. Echlin, and was deposed and excommunicated in November, He has left a few writings behind him, and was grandfather of the poet Robert Blair, author of The Grave.

During the years of his ministry at Bangor the following incident occurred to him, which he of course attributes to demonic possession, though homicidal mania [Pg 89] resulting from intemperate habits would be nearer the truth.

I looking upon him saw his eyes like the eyes of a cat in the night, did presently conceive that he had a mischief in his heart, yet I resolved not to refuse what he desired, but I keeped a watchful eye upon him, and stayed at some distance; and being near to the door of the church I went in, and invited him to follow me.

As soon as he entered within the doors he fell atrembling, and I, awondering. His trembling continuing and growing without any speech, I approached to him, and invited him to a seat, wherein he could hardly sit.

The great trembling was like to throw him out of the seat. I laid my arm about him, and asked him what ailed him?

But for a time he could speak none. At last his [Pg 90] shaking ceased, and he began to speak, telling me, that for a long time the Devil had appeared to him; first at Glasgow he bought a horse from him, receiving a sixpence in earnest, and that in the end he offered to him a great purse full of sylver to be his, making no mention of the horse; he said that he blessed himself, and so the buyer with the sylver and gold that was poured out upon the table vanished.

But some days thereafter he appeared to him at his own house, naming him by his name, and said to him, Ye are mine, for I arled you with a sixpence, which yet ye have.

Then said he, I asked his name, and he answered, they call me Nickel Downus I suppose that he repeated evil, that he should have said Nihil Damus.

Being thus molested with these and many other apparitions of the Devil, he left Scotland; but being come to Ireland he did often likewise appear to him, and now of late he still commands me to kill and slay; and oftentimes, says he, my whinger hath been drawn and kept under my cloak to obey his commands, but still something holds my hand that I cannot strike.

But then I asked him [Pg 91] whom he was bidden kill? He answered, any that comes in my way; but. When he uttered these words he fell again atrembling, and was stopped in his speaking, looking lamentably at me, designing me to be the person he aimed at; then he fell a crying and lamenting.

In his choice of a date his Satanic Majesty [Pg 92] showed his respect for popular superstitions. This attack of delirium tremens though Mr.

Blair would not have so explained it had a most salutary effect; the constable was in such an abject state of terror lest the Devil should carry him off that he begged Mr.

Blair to sit up with him all Hallow-night, which he did, spending the time very profitably in prayer and exhortation, which encouraged the man to defy Satan and all his works.

The upshot of the matter was, that he became very charitable to the poor, and seems to have entirely renounced his intemperate habits. Rejecting the supernatural element in the above as being merely the fruits of a diseased mind, there is no reason to doubt the truth of the story.

Blair, warmly congratulated him on the successful exorcism he had practised. If the period treated of in this chapter, viz. The rebellion of , and the Cromwellian confiscations, that troubled period when the [Pg 94] country was torn by dissention, and ravaged by fire, sword, and pestilence, was aptly ushered in by a series of supernatural events which occurred in the county of Limerick.

Priests have adventured to be there, but have been cruelly beaten for their paynes, and carryed away they knew not how, some two miles and some four miles.

Moreover were seen in the like manner, after they appear to the view of the neighbours, infinite number of armed men on foote as well as on horseback One thing more [ i.

Mary Burke with twelve servants lyes in the house, and never one hurt, onley they must dance with them every night; they say, Mrs.

Mary come away, [Pg 95] telling her she must be wyfe to the inchanted Earl of Desmond Uppon a Mannour of my Lord Bishoppe of Lymerick, Loughill, hath been seen upon the hill by most of the inhabitants aboundance of armed men marching, and these seene many tymes—and when they come up to them they do not appeare.

These things are very strange, if the cleargie and gentrie say true. During the rebellion an appalling massacre of Protestants took place at Portadown, when about a hundred persons, men, women, and children, were forced over the bridge into the river, and so drowned; the few that could swim, and so managed to reach the shore, were either knocked on the head by the insurgents when they landed, or else were shot.

It is not a matter of surprise that this terrible incident gave rise to legends and stories in which anything strange or out of the common was magnified out of all proportion.

The supposed spectre was probably a poor, bereaved woman, demented by grief and terror, who stole out of her hiding-place at night to bewail the murder of her friends, while the weird cries arose from the half-starved dogs of the country-side, together with the wolves which abounded in Ireland at that period, quarrelling and fighting over the corpses.

Granting the above, and bearing in mind the credulity [Pg 97] of all classes of Society, it is not difficult to see how the tales originated; but to say that, because such obviously impossible statements occur in certain depositions, the latter are therefore worthless as a whole, is to wilfully misunderstand the popular mind of the seventeenth century.

We have the following on the testimony of the Rev. George Creighton, minister of Virginia, co. Thereupon the Rogue thrust three times at her naked body with his drawn sword, and never pierced her skin; whereat he being, as it seems, much confounded, went away and left her.

This many hundreds were eye-witnesses of. Divers of the like have I confidently been assured of, who have been provided of diabolical charms.

The ease with which the accidental or unusual was transformed into the miraculous at this period is shown by the following.

Tate and his wife and children were flying to Dublin from the insurgents. On their way they were wandering over commons covered with snow, without any food.

Tate mentioned above was evidently the Rev. Faithful Tate, D. On the night of Sunday, the 8th of May , a terrific storm of hail and rain came upon the English soldiers, which of course they attributed to other than the correct source.

It was not possible for any match to keep fire, or any sojor to handle his musket or yet to stand. Yea, severalls of them dyed that night of meere cold.

Our sojors, and some of our officers too who suppose that no thing which is more than ordinarie can be the product of nature , attributed this hurrikan to the divilish skill of some Irish witches.

The latter went out, found a witch, persuaded her to confess herself the guilty author of the storm, and then burnt her—by which time, no doubt, the wind had subsided!

Much in the same strain might be added, but, lest we should weary our readers, we shall content ourselves with giving two more marvellous relations from this particular period so full of the marvellous.

The first of these was some form of the northern lights, and is also recorded in the diary of certain Puritan officers. That if the Irish took the water first to move towards the English they should be put to a total Rout, which came to pass.

An instance of an Irishman suffering from the effects of witchcraft outside Ireland is afforded us in a pathetic petition sent up to the English Parliament between the years and Antrim, where he was born, by which he was reduced to such extremity that he was forced to come [Pg ] over to England to seek some means of livelihood for himself in craving the charity of well-disposed people, but contrary to his expectation he has been often troubled there with dreams and fearful visions in his sleep, and has been twice bewitched, insomuch that he can find no quietness or rest here, and so prays for a pass to return to Ireland.

The saintly James Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, was a Prelate who, if he had happened to live at an earlier period would certainly have been numbered amongst those whose wide and profound learning won for themselves the title of magician—as it was, he was popularly credited with prophetical powers.

According to it, he foretold the rebellion of in a sermon on Ezekiel iv. William Turner in his Compleat History of Remarkable Providences London, gives a premonition of approaching death that the Archbishop received.

A lady who was dead appeared to him in his sleep, and invited him to sup with her the next night. He accepted the invitation, and died the following afternoon, 21st March John Browne of Durley in Ireland was made by his neighbour, John Mallett of Enmore, trustee [Pg ] for his children in minority.

In Mr. Some of his people and friends were sitting by him, when to their horror they suddenly saw the locked chest begin to open, lock by lock, without the aid of any visible hand, until at length the lid stood upright.

The chest slowly locked itself in exactly the same manner as it had opened, and shortly after this Mr. Browne died.

With the Restoration of King Charles II witchcraft did not cease; on the other hand it went on with unimpaired vigour, and several important cases were brought to trial in England.

In one instance, at least, it made its appearance in Ireland, this time far south, at Youghal. It is from the first of these sources that we have taken it, and reproduce it here verbatim, except that some redundant matter has been omitted, i.

Hayman in his Guide to Youghal attributes the whole affair to the credulity of the Puritan settlers, who were firm believers in such things.

In this he is correct no doubt, but it should be borne in mind by the reader that such a belief was not confined to the new-comers at Youghal, but was common property throughout England and Ireland.

The tale shows that there was a little covey of suspected witches in Youghal at that date, as well as some skilful amateur witch-finders Messrs.

Perry, Greatrakes, and Blackwall. For the benefit of the uninitiated we may briefly describe the actual process, which, as we shall see, the Mayor contemplated, [Pg ] but did not actually carry out.

She is then thrown into the water: if she sinks and drowns, by any chance! Being asked how long she had known her, she said for three or four years.

And being asked whether she perceived at these times what she vomited? She replied, she did; for then she was not in so great distraction as in other parts of her Fits she was.

And that before the first beginning of her Fits several and very many small stones would fall upon her as she went up and down, and would follow her from place to place, and from one Room to another, and would hit her on the head, shoulders, and arms, and fall to the ground and vanish away.

And that she and several others would see them both fall upon her and on the ground, but could never take [Pg ] them, save only some few which she and her Master caught in their hands.

And being asked how she knew that she was thus carried about and disposed of, seeing in her Fits she was [Pg ] in a violent distraction?

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Demnig heeft de Europese licentie voor het project. Sommige steden Amersfoort, Alkmaar kiezen er al voor om zelf steentjes te maken.

Ze kijkt recht in de lens, vriendelijk maar timide. Ze heeft geen flauw benul wat haar te wachten staat als ze in de nacht van 25 augustus met driehonderd andere Limburgse joden naar het station in Maastricht loopt.

Als jarige alleenstaande heeft ze zich gehoorzaam gemeld voor de Arbeitseinsatz, in de hoop dat de dwangarbeid haar ouders dan bespaard blijft.

Vijf dagen later leeft ze niet meer; via Westerbork belandt ze in Auschwitz waar ze bij aankomst meteen wordt vergast.

Niets weet hij van de bewogen geschiedenis van zijn imposante jugendstilhuis aan de Bosscherweg als hij het koopt — Marcelles ouderlijk huis.

Vaag weet hij dat er joodse bewoners zijn geweest; hij is zelf joods en vindt dat dus wel interessant. Pas als een nazaat van de familie Devries plots op de oprit staat met de vraag of hij het huis van zijn opa en oma eens mag zien, begint het te leven.

Dat gebeurt op 22 juni Het is niet het eerste messing steentje met namen, deportatiedata en sterfdata van Holocaust-slachtoffers in de provincie.

Op 3 december plaatst de Duitse kunstenaar Gunter Demnig de allereerste Stolpersteine in Limburg op de Kerkraadse Markt.

Ook in Vaals , Gulpen en Eygelshoven verschijnen de stenen. Twee maanden na Maastricht volgt Heerlen, waar stichting Lodewijk Foijer het voortouw neemt.

Hoensbroek , Valkenburg en Sittard volgen. En daarmee komt de Stolpersteine-olievlek in noordelijke richting tot stilstand.

Totdat emeritus hoogleraar Fred Grünfeld en zijn vrouw Marij van den Bosch op het idee komen van hun grote project: het leven van de Limburgse Holocaust-slachtoffers belichten.

Die droom vereist geld en op 25 juni zetten ze hun eerste schreden op het subsidiepad. In het provinciehuis overleggen ze met een ambtenaar hoe een aanvraag eruit moet zien.

Het gesprek vindt plaats op 7 januari Grünfeld c. We hebben achttien extra documenten ingediend! Fred Grunfeld, emeritus hoogleraar.

Naast de honderd steentjes die dan al in Maastricht liggen, willen ze er nog eens in de hoofdstad plaatsen. Ook voor Kerkrade 26 stenen , Heerlen 20 , Valkenburg 23 en Sittard-Geleen hebben ze plannen.

Kosten voor alleen de steentjes: Daarnaast willen ze een film laten maken euro , een app voor wandelingen langs de stenen Het geheel af te sluiten met een symposium van de universiteit Maastricht en Studium Generale euro.

Stip aan de horizon: de herdenking van 75 jaar einde van de Tweede Wereldoorlog in Gouverneur Bovens is enthousiast en stelt voor het project uit te breiden naar de hele provincie.

Zo ontstaat een fatsoenlijke treinverbinding via Venlo tussen Eindhoven en Düsseldorf. Ieder alternatief van een IJzeren Rijn is in de ogen van de nieuwe regering onhaalbaar want te duur.

Bovendien verwacht de nieuwe coalitie massief verzet van gemeenten langs een IJzeren Rijn. Maximaal twee daarvan mogen in de adventstijd worden gepland.

De deuren blijven op de christelijke hoogfeestdagen van Pasen, Kerstmis en Pinksteren gesloten. Duitse en Nederlandse kinderen moeten zo vroeg mogelijk met elkaar kennismaken.

De politie gaat als vanouds op onregelmatige tijden her en der controleren. De nieuwe christen-democratische-liberale regering van Noordrijn-Westfalen schrapt tachtig procent van de nieuwbouwplannen voor windmolenparken.

Bovendien krijgen de gemeenten de vrijheid om te bepalen of en waar ze windmolens willen laten bouwen. Dat blijkt uit het coalitieakkoord van CDU en FDP dat gistermiddag door het parlement in Düsseldorf werd goedgekeurd.

Het windmolenbesluit is een radicale breuk met het beleid tot nu toe van de sociaal-democraten en de Groenen, die de verkiezingen verloren.

Omdat Duitsland na de kernramp in Japan besloot te stoppen met atoomenergie, werd ingezet op alternatieve energiebronnen zoals wind. Gemeenten werden verplicht een bepaald aantal windmolens te plaatsen.

Om de energievoorziening zeker te stellen wil de nieuwe regering tot doorgaan met het winnen van bruinkool in de enorme groeves, vlak over de grens in Midden-Limburg.

De hoop is erop gevestigd dat nieuwe technieken voor opslag van energie tot snellere afbouw van de bruinkoolgroeves leidt. De bruinkoolwinning heeft grote gevolgen voor de grondwaterstand, ook in Limburg.

Volgens Optendrenk hebben de maatregelen die zijn genomen gewerkt en wordt nauwgezet in de gaten gehouden of dat zo blijft.

De raadkamer heeft gisteren het verzoek van het OM om opheffing van de schorsing van die voorlopige hechtenis vorig jaar, toegewezen. De jarige terreurverdachte uit Wanssum die afgelopen vrijdag na het verlaten van de moskee in Venray werd aangehouden blijft vastzitten tot de rechtszaak op 15 augustus.

Het meisje is vorig jaar juli op jarige leeftijd aangehouden in verband met terrorisme. Over de exacte verdenking wil het Openbaar Ministerie OM niets zeggen vanwege de jeugdige leeftijd van de verdachte.

Het meisje, een Nederlandse bekeerlinge, werd vorig jaar onder voorwaarden vrijgelaten. We zijn er de afgelopen weken weer mee doodgegooid.

Selfies gemaakt op zo ongeveer alle bekende plekken op deze aardkloot. IJdelheid kan tegenwoordig dankzij het mobieltje makkelijker dan ooit worden tentoongespreid.

Toch is er niets nieuws onder de zon; de selfie is zo oud als de mensheid. Al die vrienden wier gezichten je kunt uittekenen op plekken die je kunt dromen.

Ja beste Tim, ik weet dat je op Kos op vakantie bent en het nog altijd geinig vindt om op een opblaasbare banaan te zitten.

Ik waardeer je totale gebrek aan schaamte om als man van 47, kirrend van de pret, een selfie te maken op een banaan met allemaal Oh Oh Cherso-achtige pubers.

Dat vond je vorig jaar ook toen je ook al die selfie van je jubeltenen in de vloedlijn postte. Vakantie-selfies zijn net rijstwafels: ze smaken nergens naar, maar ze happen zo lekker weg.

En je bent tenminste verlost van die haast vergeten kwelling: dia-avondjes. Waarop je jezelf urenlang de tering verveelde terwijl oom Henk de vakantiedia's van een weekje.

Zijn we door de sociale media allemaal veranderd in ijdeltuiten waar Cristiano Ronaldo zich nog voor zou schamen? Nee hoor. Het valt alleen nu meer op omdat het door diezelfde sociale media zo makkelijk is jezelf te manifesteren.

De mens heeft al zo lang hij bestaat zendingsdrang. Maar waar je zelfs. Dat wordt op een leuke, speelse manier duidelijk gemaakt in het onlangs bij Lemniscaat verschenen boek Selfie: het veranderende gezicht van zelfportretten.

Dik zevenduizend jaar voor Christus gemaakt door grotbewoners die hun handpalm tegen de muren drukten en daar omheen door een hol rietje verf bliezen.

Gewoon om duidelijk te maken dat ze er geweest waren. Loop de mergelgrotten van Maastricht binnen en je ziet dat de mensheid in duizenden jaren beschaving geen sikkepit veran-.

Drie minuten later was hij dood. Dat beeld vergeet ik nooit meer. Daar stond ik, 18 jaar en enig overgebleven kind. Twee zusjes waren als baby al aan difterie gestorven en mijn oudere broer overleed indirect aan de gevolgen van oorlogshandelingen.

Alle drie zijn bij een hinderlaag in een ravijn gestort. Twee meteen dood, mijn broer een tijd daarna.

Het zou helaas niet het laatste afscheid en de laatste tegenslag in mijn leven zijn. Ik moest er niet aan denken, je hele leven op twee vierkante meter staan.

Ik was sportief, voetbalde, volleyde, was hardloopkampioen. Ik nam de benen bij de ambachtsschool. Ik was namelijk goed genoeg bevonden voor de hbs, wilde studeren en iets in de sportwereld gaan doen.

Maar tegelijkertijd was ik ook een heel brave jongen. Uiteindelijk was ik niet rebels genoeg om vaders wil te weerstaan. Pas na een jaar kreeg ik een fiets, helaas zonder banden.

Ik heb toen zelf twee dikke tuinslangen om de wielen heen gelegd. Zo ging dat in die jaren. Er stond nog een paar duizend gulden open, dat was in een kapitaal.

Mijn vader was te zeer een goedzak. Hoe dan ook, het grootste deel van uitstaande betalingen is nooit afgerekend.

Ik was meer een streber, wilde het beter aanpakken, groter groeien. Het mag allemaal niet baten. Het voorstel om de aanvraag, op De brief daarover slaat bij Grünfeld en zijn metgezellen in als een bom.

Vernieuwend is het plan ook niet en het past ook niet binnen de subsidieregels voor toerisme. Pleister op de wonde: de provincie heeft de aanvraag voorgelegd aan het Oranjefonds.

Meer elegantie, meer stijl. Samen met mijn vrouw Milly had ik het oog laten vallen op een pand aan de Parade in Venlo, een A-locatie.

Maar we hadden niet genoeg geld. Mijn buurmeisje Maria was getrouwd met Wim Schutte, de baas van Prins van Oranje, het voormalige concertgebouw van Venlo.

Die leende me het bedrag van vele tienduizenden gulden dat ik nodig had. Dat zou nu niemand meer doen, maar in die tijd vertrouwden mensen elkaar nog en bestond er nog zoiets als naoberschap.

Saamhorigheid, die na de oorlog heel vanzelfsprekend was. Binnen zeven jaar had ik alles terugbetaald.

Ik had op de een of andere manier het vak in de vingers. Milly en ik kwamen uit een eenvoudig gezin, maar we hielden allebei van klasse en een beetje grandeur.

Gaandeweg werd Chez Henri een begrip in Venlo, zowel voor mannen als voor vrouwen. Ik ontwikkelde eigen kapsels voor mannen, zoals Coupe Hardy en Coupe Bross.

Ik werd uitgezonden naar Europese kampioenschappen in Madrid, Wenen en Boedapest, eerst als deelnemer, later als jurylid.

De overheid bepaalde toen nog kapperstarieven in de klassen 1 tot en met 5. Ik zat nog in drie, maar vond dat ik al lang toe was aan klasse 4 en rekende daarin ook af.

Een collega gaf me aan bij de Belastingdienst en ik werd veroordeeld tot een boete van duizend gulden.

Maar ik timmerde verder aan de weg. Ik was de eerste in Nederland die het diploma haarwerken voor pruiken en toupetjes haalde, zoals ik helaas ook de eerste was die zes implantaten kreeg, nadat een keeper me tijdens een wedstrijd voor VVV alle boventanden uit de mond had getrapt.

Toch ging ik fluitend door het leven, totdat ik in van de ene op de andere week afscheid moest nemen van de zaak.

Ik had kappersbenen: ernstige spataderen en trombose. En vol-. Ooit Nederlands kapperskampioen, later bespanner van de rackets van Boris Becker en Yannick Noah.

FOTO JOHN PETERS. Daar stond ik weer met lege handen, 37 jaar, getrouwd en vader van twee dochters. Er moest toch brood op de plank komen. Ik kende Gerrit en Geurt Snetselaar, beter bekend als die Zwei Brüder, omdat ze ook aan de Kaldenkerkerweg waren opgegroeid.

Zo kon ik hun nieuwe tennishal in Uden gaan exploiteren. Scottis and Pichtis and a'. Kings Nathack and Dorvidilla, With Fergus and Drustus and Dufius, That entered the ark with No-ah.

Some eulogise Taylor and Barrow, Or of Chalmers eternally craik. But our true Theological Marrow You only will find in Lepraik. Preachers and Pastors an' a'.

In their skull-cap brought from Geneva; Who with lion-soul'd Knox for their leader. Drove the Romanist louns to the wa'. The pext, and certainly their most important production, is the " Vitae Episcoporum Dunkeldensis Ecclesiae," or Lives of the Bishops of Dun- keld, from the unpublished manuscript of Alexander Myln, Abbot of Cambuskenneth, and First Senator of the College of Justice.

We can never say enough in praise of the great pains which Mr Thomson has taken to render it accurate, and fill in the contrac- tions; and the style is too intricate in some parts to admit of an extract being of general interest ; but viewing it as a reprint, it would do honour to any institution to bring forth this gem, which is further enhanced by two most beautiful fac-similes of the emblazoned part of the original manuscript.

But the time would fail were we to launch forth on the wide and delightful field which has now been opened to our view; and as we have hastily glanced over the works from the general fund, we here conclude by intimating our full intention of resuming, at some future period, " the willing task" of discoursing, in the Jirst place, of what?

The Bannatyne Club, as we have heard from certain whisperings, is proceeding with great activity in the very laudable object of its institu- tion.

It is a great mistake to suppose that its meetings are all of that sombre cast which certain ill-informed persons imagine to be the case. A NEW Literary Society has recently sprung up in Edinburgh, of the nature of the London Roxburghe Club, for the repubUcation of scarce and valuable tracts, especially poetry.

Sir Walter Scott very properly takes the lead in this literary junta, and Mr Laing, junior, son of the respectable bookseller, is the Secretary.

At their last convivial meeting one of the members sung a new ballad to the old tune of " one bottle more," which was repeatedly encored, and ordered to be repeated at all subsequent meetings.

This song is attributed to the great known un- known author of Waverley. We hope soon to present our readers with a copy of it.

This most ridiculous of all the affectations of the day has lately ex- hibited another instance of its diffusion, in the establishment of a RoX' burghe Club in Edinburgh.

Its object, we are told, is the republication THE BANNATYNE CLUB. Of this there are some four and twenty members or so, who dine together a certain number of times in the year, and each member in his turn republishes some old tract, at his own ex- pense.

There are just so many copies printed as there are members of the club, and one copy is presented to each.

It is evident that no sort of good can be eflfected by this system, and indeed, there has not yet resulted any benefit to the literature of the country from the Roxburghe Club.

They have not published a single book of any conceivable merit. The observations on the Roxburghe Club established in London, which are contained in the above extract, are mere railing.

Why, is it not good enough that the members please them- selves, and find some employment for a poor devil of a printer? Seeing, therefore, that B 10 NOTICES RELATIVE TO we have taken the Championship upon us, we rush fearlessly forward to cope with this Literary Hydra, " And damn'd be he who first cries hold!

We have now before us the fruit of the past year's labour, which has burst upon our view, Uke a hail storm, thick and THREE-fold; and as each author seems equally well-dressed, and shouldering each other for notice, we will take up at a venture he who seems to be the most consequential, and, holding him between our aged eyes, and our flickering farthing candle, we will see if he bear unblanched the scrutinizing critic's eye.

So ho! Other Editors have as boldlv averred, that it contains a direct THE BANNATYNE CLUB. But really, these latter must see deeper than ourselves into this bottom- less pit of alliteration, which is so forced and frequent, that truly it might be questioned, without presumption, whether or not the well-meaning author himself knew what he would be at.

But both these editors published from the same manuscript — for, as chance would have it, we possess two manuscripts — one in Banna- tyne's folio, from which they copied — and another, preserved in what is termed the Auchinleck Manuscript, compiled by John A Sloan or Sloan, about the year ; and this being reckoned more complete, supplied the text for the present edition.

But sufficit — we have had enough of the Howlat, with his midnight darkness of meaning; therefore turn we to the poems by Sir David Mur- ray of Gorthy, a younger branch of the family of Abercaimy; consisting of " The Tragical Death of Sophonisba, by David Murray, Scoto-Bri- taine," London ; " CsBlia, certaine Sonnets," without date; and " A Paraphrase of the civ.

Psalm, by David Murray. These are printed from the very rare copies still preserved — mirabile dicta! The first of these poems is founded upon the well-known story of Mas- sinissa, afterwards king of Carthage, and Sophonisba, queen of Numidia, from Livy, Appian, Polybius, and other historians.

It has been repeatedly tragedized, as we find there is " La Sopfonisba Tragedi di M. Georgio Trissino," in duodecimo, Venetia, , dedicated to Leo the Tenth.

And Petrarch has also touched upon that subject in his " Trionfo d'Amore. And Hannibal a whining amorous slave, I laugh, and wish the hot-brain'd fustian fool, In Busby's hands, to be well lasht at school!

Sophonisba, Sophinisba, Oh! Narva, Narva, Oh! Jemmy Tanisoriy Jemmy Tamson, Oh I But we have erred in wandering so far from our point, and cry mercy from our reader, if he has " more than there is milk in a male tiger.

TO Mr Secretary — what, in the name of all the hundred thousand Scots Worthies, what are you about? Has this escaped your Argus-eyed researches?

He could not mean Sophonisba, because it was published two years before that; nor is it likely he could mean the Paraphrase of the CIV.

Psalm, because it will not bear so much straining as the above verse would imply, being only a 16 stanza concern at the most, and printed two years after the above was written.

We shall give one extract from the latter part of the Sonnets, which will serve at once as a specimen of the author's style, and make us regret that he has left so little to support his fame, which we bpldly assert to be superior to most, and inferior to few, of the Scottish poets of his age — not even excepting Drummond, his friend and companion.

And soy perhaps, some passenger, That passeth by the way, May stay and listen for to heare Them sing this doleftil lay.

Poore HarpaluSy a shepheard swaine, More rich in youth than store, Lov'd faire Philena, haplesse man ; Philenoy oh, therefore! Who still, remorceles-hearted maidc, Tooke pleasure in his paine ; And his good-will poore soule repayd With undeserved disdayne.

Ne're shepheard lov'd a shepheardesse More faithfully then he, Ne're shepheard yet beloved lesse Of shepheardesse could be.

How oft with dying lookes did he To her his woes impart? How oft his sighs did test! How oft from valeis to the liils. Did he his griefes rehearse? How oft re-echo'd they liis ils Abacke againe alas?

How oft on barkes of stately Piues, Of Beech, of Holen green, Did he ingrave in moumfull lines, The dole he did sustaine? Yet all His plaints could have no place.

To change Philena's mind : The more his sorrows did increase. The more she proved unkind. He quat both life and love. Psalm, which seems to have formed the bone of contention among those poets who have scrambled for the Laurels, during a period of several centuries, and we have no less than eight or ten different versions of it in Latin.

The azure Heaven doth like a curtaine spred. And in the depths his chalmer beams hath lay'd. The clouds he makes his chariot to be,.

On them he wheeles the christall skies about. The Earth's foundation he did firmelie place, And lay'd it so that it should never slyde ; He made the depths her round about embrace.

And like a Robe her naked shores to hide. Whose waters would o'rflow the mountains high, But that they backe at his rebuke doe flie.

At the dread voice of his consuming thunder. As these retire, the mountalnes in the skie Doe raise their tops like Pyramidi of wonder. And at their feet the pleasant valleys lie; And to the floods he doth prescribe a Bound, That thy Earth's beautie may no more confound.

The thristie tops of skie menacing Hils He from the Clouds refresheth with his raine. And with the Goodness of his Grace he fills The Earth, with all that doth therein remaine; He causeth her both Man and Beast to feede, The wholesome Herbes, and tender grasse to breede.

Of the merits of this author, whom the editor, Mr Maidment, suggests to have been a descendant of the ancient family of Auldbar, in Forfarshire, we have little to say, its uniqueity being the only claim which has been put in for its reproduction; and out of his lines, there are no doubt many good, more bad, and the greater proportion indifferent.

Which may be spent or perish in an houre. Earth's flying joyes are like a summer field. Whose blosspmes must to flower-quell winter yield.

Imagine this which to be found is rare. Thy joyes were never interrupt with griefe. Since life is such, then let us learn to die.

That we by death a better life may gain: Let vs this Scilla, this Charibdes flie. Haste to the port, and flee the troubled main. What is intended to be done by these champions for the fame of Dame Scotia's literary relics.

With regard to what is intended to be done by the members individu- ally, this has as yet been confined to mere vague report, without any fixed design having been assumed — some speaking of reprinting Sir Tliomas Urchard's curious volume of epigrams, printed in , with perhaps his Precious Jewel.

Another gentleman has also in progress a highly curious account of Scotland, with regard to its trade and shipping, in the time of Cromwell. Others again talk of joining together and printing, at their mutual expense, Dempster's inaccurate, but invaluable, Historia Ecclesiastica.

While another party talk of joining purses to print some of the old Char- tularies ; and this being an important branch of our history, we had been at some pains to collect an accurate list of them, with the places where they are preserved, but we must defer shewing off our monastic lore till some more convenient season.

Having now so notoriously bid defiance to all bounds, we would draw to a close, with a few reflections on the utility of such associations as that which we have been attempting to review ; and as much might be advanced both pro and con on this, which was the Third and last branch of our subject, we must indeed be brief.

That they have much in their power cannot be denied ; they might cause a reflux of attention from all parties to be directed towards our ancient literature, which, if we may judge from the size of their writings, the talents of our ancestors must have been gigantic indeed.

In fact, they would seem to have thought about as much of composing a folio, as the present diminutive race would think of reading one.

And what will future generations think of us, when it is known that the character of the age was to fritter down these folios, and what with cutting, copying from their predecessors, and by dint of joining and eking, they would vamp up a few-leav'd periodical, which can give little satisfaction on any subject, is forgotten even in the hour of its birth, and must, almost of necessity, die with the life of the next succeeding number?

But this, we are most happy to find, is not altogether the case with the present Society ; and now the only fear which we have is, that in their eagerness and anxiety to let nothing good escape their researches, they will throw up so much rubbish that it will clog the utility of their operations.

But why disturb the deservedly dead? Why renovate those writings which were never meant to be of any but a temporary importance, and only interesting to those more immediately concerned?

PRINTED AT EDINBURGH, We commence our critical labours on the present occasion with more than usual complacency, perfectly satisfied, as we happen to be, that we are indifferently well qualified for reviewing the volume before us.

Imprt- misy It is the offspring of a club of literati, whose Shiboleth is, in plain phrase. Bibliomania; and we have been the victims of this dreadful disease for many years, during which we have exhibited all its most notorious symptoms, from incipient affection for large paper, to the dan- gerous paroxysms ycleped uniqtces and Jijieeners.

Secundo, The work embraces a period of Scotish history, on which more has been written, and writers have displayed greater differences of opinion, than on any other portion of our annals, and we are sufficiently pugnacious to have a strong inclination to enter the lists.

Tertio, It details not a few inci- dents in the early life of one of the most incomprehensible of Scotish monarchs, and we should like to avail ourselves of the opportunity thus afforded us of delivering our opinion of the youthful days of a pheno- menon in history I a learned King.

Mr Laing, in his Disser- tation on the Murder of Darnley, published in , first denounced the fraud; and the strong language he employed on the occasion having provoked much criticism, he felt it necessary, in his own justification, immediately to publish an accurate transcript of the MS.

The publication of this MS. The whole have been used in the formation of the text now published, the various readings bemg given, in an appendix. It is remarkable how very closely all these manuscripts, agree ; indeed there is not a fact of any importance about which they differ.

With regard to the authorship of the present volume, we are decidedly of opinion that it ought not to be assigned to one individual. The learned editor seems to hint Prelim.

Notice, p. We think, then, that there is an obvious change of writers at page ; that the second, who appears to us to be inferior to the first writer, continues his labours no farther than page ; that the third writer, who there takes up the thread of the story, is one who was connected with the practice of the law; that this writer continued the narrative to the year , or to page ; and that even after him there were at least two writers employed on the four remaining pages of the MS.

Be these things as they may, however, the work is, throughout, the labour of individuals who were living at the time the various events which they narrate took place, but who do not appear to have been either eye-wit- nesses, or persons who had particular opportunities of knowing the private history of these events.

They seem, in short, to have merely embodied the national feeling at the time ; but they have done so in a dispassionate manner, and, in our opinion, with very commendable impartiality.

Our limits will not permit us to present to our readers any of the various views of the character and conduct of Queen Mary, which have been suggested by a perusal of the first portion of the volume ; these we reserve for a future article, in which we propose to ourselves to form something like an impartial estimate of the evidence and argument for and against this unfortunate Princess.

In the meantime, we may hint to her admirers, that were they to make use of the " Historic" now pub- lished, as a running commentary on the statements of Tytler, Whitaker, and others, they would probably feel it necessary to revise, if not to alter, their creed.

Various causes have been assigned for. Certain it is, that very soon after their mar- riage Mary evinced little anxiety for her husband's company, and that Darnley took very little pains either to preserve or regain her affections.

He allowed himself to be persuaded that Rizzio was a more favoured object of the Queen's attentions than himself, and the unfortunate musician was the victim of his revenge.

We are far from thinking ihat Darnley had any good grounds for depriving Rizzio of life, yet if we may credit the contemporary narrative of Sir James Melvil, the Queen displayed an immoderate portion of sorrow for the death of her lutenist.

Edition , p. X Melnl's Memoirs, p. OF JAMES THE SEXT. Internal divisions now disturbed the country more violently than before.

In July they crowned James at Stirling, and in the following month the Earl of Murray the Queen's bastard brother was appointed Regent of the kingdom.

Murray, in , was shot on the street of Linlithgow ; and after Lennox and Mar had successively been appointed regents, Morton, the most able politician and most selflsh man of the whole party of the king, was proclaimed regent in The troubles which agitated Scotland during this unhappy period, as well as the succeeding five years of Morton's regency, we purposely omit, our limits being alto- gether inadequate to the slightest sketch of them.

In James, at the age of eleven, performed his first act of govern- ment, by accepting of Morton's resignation of the regency.

His manage- ment in this affair proves him to have been an adroit, or a very docile boy, for Morton's request to resign was a mere feint, to acquire greater in- fluence over James, and was never mtended to be carried into effect.

D 26 REVIEW OF THE HISTORIE king's presence, and to resume the government of the kingdom as before.

He was violently opposed by the Chancellor Athol , and an appeal to arms seemed to be unavoidable; but the king contrived to allay the rising storm, and to prevent bloodshed between the adherents of the hostile factions.

Next to Lennox, Captain James Stewart, the second son of Lord Ochil- tree, was most in favour with the king. His fortunes were pushed with great ardour by various nobles and preachers, in the hope that he would prove a rival to Lennox in the king's affections ; and as their efforts were ably seconded by his own address, he was soon created Erral of Arran, and wielded almost exclusively the government of the kingdom.

His power alarmed even his friends, and they promoted a quarrel between Lennox and him, that they might rid themselves of both; but he deserted his sup- porters and joined Lennox, and with him divided the king's favours and the kingdom's rule.

Queen Elizabeth reproached him for his conduct to the banished nobles, and his reception of Arran ; but he answered her ambassador in a strain of independence, with which the latter pretended to be satisfied, and most probably was so, as the embassy appears to have been got chiefly up for the purpose of obliging Gowrie and the other con- spirators, and retaining and confirming them in the interest of the English queen.

Melvil seems to have thought that the English ambassador had another object in view, viz. The ministers, on the uther part, persuadit the people that it was a godly fact.

Gowrie was apprehended, tried for treason, and on 4th May beheaded at Stirhng. The Earl of Arran seized on his estates. His adherents, Angus, Mar, and others, were de- clared, in a Parliament held on the 22d August following,!

Thus ended the Rayd of Ruthven. James was now governed more completely than ever by the counsels of the Earl of Arran, and the measures of this intriguing minion were ably seconded by his wife, a beautiful but a profligate woman, whose passions and ambition knew no restraint.

Her husband's fortunes were promoted by every disturbance ; he was even guilty of involving men in treasonable practices that he might seize on their estates — in one word, he grasped at boundless acquisitions, and his power seemed to be firmly established.

According to Hume of Godscroft, J " In the civill government there was none now but the Earle of Arran; he lacked the name of King, but hee ruled as absolutely, and commanded more imperiously, than any King, under the shadow of the King's authority, and the pretext that all that he did was for the King's good and safety.

Hee had gotten before the keeping of the Castle of Stirlin ; hee behooved also to have the Castle of Edinburgh in his power.

X Mel? Queen Elizabeth had found him less subservient to her interests than she wished, and she therefore forwarded the enterprise by contributions of money and th6 exertions of her ambas- sador in Scotland; and every thing was so well conducted, that the con- federated nobles arrived before Stirling without opposition, won the town and castle, came straight into the king's presence, " and all of them desyrit the King's pardoun for that bardie enterpryse, whilk was grantit rather for feare nor favor.

James, as usual, surrendered his mind into the keeping of another, and Secretary Maitland seems to have been Arran's successor in the meritorious office.

Towards the end of James received intelligence of the con- demnation of his mother by the English queen, and he immediately dis- patched two ambassadors to get the sentence annulled.

The King ressavit thair ambassador, as I have sayd, and be his persuasioun is becum thair yeirlie pensioner. But James, who was always a lover of peace, bethought himself of other emplo3rment than our historian would force upon him, and began seriously to look around him for a wife.

Ambassadors were dispatched to Denmark, and in August he was married by proxy to Anne, a Danish princess. Stormy weather obliged her to take refuge in Norway ; and James was so gallant, or impatient, that he encountered the dangers of a winter voyage, and married her in person.

It is but fiir to mentiony that Balfour's statement of tbe cause of Murray's murder is not supported by the authority either of the author of the " Historie," or of Robert Birrel ; and that Melyil attributes Uie deed to a family feud, and speaks of the oommisnon under widdi OF JAMES THE SEXT.

They grew bolder in their demands, in proportion as James seemed to favour them, and at length interfered so directly in matters of state, that he was obliged to check them, and to appeal to his subjects against their pretensions.

But the breathing-time thus afforded seemed to add vigour to the hostile measures afterwards resorted to.

Turska, sa svojom idejom vodiljom nastanka nove-stare Otomanske imperije i velike sile kao i kontrole turkofonskog stanovnistva od Bihaca do Ujgurske Republike a sa svojim velikim privrednim rastom, postaje problem velikim silama i to mor biti spreceno.

Demontaza Turske je vec pocela. Ostalo ce biti deo tehnologije. Ni NATO nema vise interesa da se kladi na Tursku jer je vec pocela da mu postavlja uslove a u buducnosti bi ambicije mogle biti mnogo vece.

Izgledno je kladiti se na nov Kurdistan.

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